The rapid progress of civilization led
to a succession of new policies and a mushroom
growth of new words and expression. Translation
must keep abreast of our times and meet
new challenges. Translation is the recreation
of a translator, so we should pay enough
attention to translators comprehensive ability.
A qualified translator should have a profound
understanding of the linguistic differences
concerning phonetics, morphology, syntax,
semantics and rhetoric between the source
language and the target language, and he
must have a distinct understanding of the
linguistic – aesthetic effects peculiar
to the target and source language respectively.
Any mistranslation can cause great suffering.
The following are some of the new problems
that have arisen from Chinese – English
1. Translation doesn’t correspond with
the original English
if we translate Chinese into English according
to its verbal meaning, we create new English.
That’s Chinglish, Chinglish fails to get
message and causes communication breakdown.
We’d better try to avoid the use of clinches,
jargons, slangs and use idioms, subtle connotations,
tone of voice and short – hand phrases carefully.
For example, Chinese word“胶水”should be “glue”in
English, But in some magazines, it was translated
into “glue water”. In Oxford Advanced Learned
English – Chinese Dictionary (OALECD), the
English interpretation of glue is “thick
sticky liquid used for joining things”.
Glue itself can fulfill the meaning of Chinese
word“胶水”, so “water” is redundant here.
Let’s see the translation of Chinese words“不准拍照”，it
was written on public advertisement board
as“Don’t take Picture”，which has signification
of command and it is impolite in original
English. We all know the saying of “No smoking”in
English, so it is better to be translated
into“No photographs”in English. Following
this form, Chinese words“当心碰头”should be
translated into“Mind / lower your head”，not“be
careful of your head”.
Translation of terminology is very difficult.
It should be precise as well as clear, or
it will cause misunderstanding or perplexity.
For example, Chinese words“拳头产品”is translated
into“fist product”. In OALECD, “fist”means“hand
when closed tightly with the fingers bent
into the palm”， and it doesn’t have the
meaning of strength. So professor Ding thought
it should be translated into“Market – penetrating
product”or“product with a competitive edge”.
We should pay attention to not only verbal
meanings of Chinese, but its connotation
and deep meanings.
2. Clearly and fully translate some short
– hand phrases with Chinese characteristics.
The rapid development of our times lead
to new policies and guidelines with Chinese
characteristics, so how to correctly translate
them is vital to advancement of society
and quality of “opening – up and reform”，At
least, it should properly transmit the information
of Chinese words. With a view to the translation
of“Mao Zedong Thought”and“Deng Xiaoping
Theory”, Chinese“三个代表”is translated into“Three
Represents”，Thought and theory are nouns
while represent is a verb, which may confuse
readers, In view of English expression“do’s
and don’ts”，“represent”can be used here.
It is hard to find a better word to replace
represent here. When we first mention“Three
Represents”，we should thoroughly explain
it, that is to say, fully translate its
contents. It should be“Three Represents（The
Communist Party of China represents the
development trend of advanced productive
forces, the orientation of advanced culture,
the fundamental interests of the overwhelming
majority of people in China）”. This can
help original English readers understand
the spirit of“Three Represents”.
We notice that verbal translation is common
and widespread, especially in non – official
magazines and newspapers. Word – to – Word
translation, ignoring deep meaning of words
with Chinese characteristics, just translates
its superficial meaning. As we all know,
one Chinese word may have several meanings,
and one character has different meanings
in different phrases and sentence structures.
When translating them, we should pay enough
attention to their certain meanings in this
usage and clearly translate them into English.
3. Ignorant of differences between china
and west cultures.
Translation means transforming source
text into an equivalent target one, which
can lay claim to the same authority as the
original. Equivalence between a translation
and its original is established through
an external, performative speech act. But
in Chinese – English translation to find
equivalent English to Chinese is difficult,
so it is prominent in literary translation.
It’s a reason why no Chinese novel writer
gets the Nobel Art Prize. Chinese version
novels do not have the same excellent English
version in west countries. Professor Shen
Dan, who works in Tsinghua university defined
this phenomenon of liberal translation as“deceptive
equivalence”，in Chinese“假象等值”，that is, the
translation doesn’t converge with the value
of the original text, partly or wholly changing
original form or style. He made an example,
abstract of“The Dream of Red mansion”，in
translates this sentence into“There mutual
understanding ought to preclude all talk
about gold matching jade, or she instead
of Pao – chai should have the gold locket
to match his jade amulet”. It’s a typical
example of deceptive equivalence. In fact,
this translation changed the speaker’s mentality
and speaking manner, this sentence is Dai
– yu’s own thoughts, she was speaking to
herself, not including Pao – Yu’s thoughts,
so“their mutual understanding”is a violation
against original meaning, destructing its
5. Explain the words with special Chinese
Language is expression of culture, so
words have their special social and historical
background. When translating these words,
we should fully and clearly explain their
communicative meaning so as to be understood
by original English readers. For example,
a Chinese name“白居易”，if we just translate
it into“Bai Juyi”，is very difficult for
foreigners to understand, who is it? What
did he do? It is better to translate“白居易”into“Bai
Juyi, a famous poet in Tang Dynasty”. This
translation can help foreign readers know
why the name is used here, not only a token.
In the same way, the translation of“秦始皇”should
be“Qing Shihuang, the first emperor of china
who united the country in the second century
B. C”；“辛亥革命”should be“the 1911 Revolution
that overthrew the last monarch of China”；“三高农业”should
be“high - yield，cost – efficient and technology
– intensive farming”；“建国伊始”should be“since
1949”，the words unavoidably imprinted by
their certain marking of times, so fully
translate them, or the reader may be perplexed.
6. Keep the original translation of introduced
Many new words are introduced to china
with the development of society, such as“雷达”
“干部”、“丁克”，etc. These Chinese words are created
by its English pronunciation, development
of technology, We should read newspapers
and magazines to keep pace of the time.
The following are some words:丁克（Dink – double
income no kids），电子商务（E - commerce），家庭办公族（SoHo
– Small Office Home Office），吸入收炭疽热（inhalation
anthrax），网络犯罪（cyber crime），生物恐怖主义（Bio -
7. Interpreters should pay attention to
speakers’ tone and facial countenance.
This point is especially important in
simultaneous interpreting, for example,
on press conference, international conference,
Interpreters should interpret in limited
time, which is a challenge to interpreter’s
ability of reflection and flexibility. But
the most difficult to translate is speakers’
tone and facial countenance, which decide
interpreter’s chosen of words. The eminent
interpreter Zhu Tong, who works in Diplomatic
Ministry, said in her speech to Peking University
students, that the former vice premier Qian
Qichen kept calm and had no obvious countenance
change when he answered journalists’ questions,
so she chose words with solemn, formal tone;
while former premier Zhu Rongji answered
questions with humor and tact, her tone
should be varied according to his. We noticed
that translators are crucial to success
of translation. It’s an examination of translators’
knowledge, information processing, exact
expressiveness and cross – cultural consciousness.
As we all know, simultaneous interpreting
has a history of fifty years. With the need
for conference interprets growing, these
is also an increasing demand for improvements
in the interpreters’ performance. Apart
from seeking to fulfill the demanding requirements
expected of a simultaneous interpreter,
special attention must be paid, by interpreters
or instructors alike, to the in – situation
factors that can directly affect the performance
of an interpreter. If these factors are
not be correctly handled, they’ll do great
harm to the quality of simultaneous interpretation.
From aforementioned, we can conclude that
translator should have a sense of responsibility
for their translation, and any mistranslation
will do harm to readers. It is only when
the translation can achieve its intended
function that the purpose of translation
can successfully realized. Apart from responsibility,
translation depends on translators’ linguistic
competence, translation competence, translation
strategies and skills and psychological
competence, which is particularly important
in simultaneous interpreting.
Great achievements have been made in translation
theories. It is important to turn these
theories into knowledge and practice, and
it will strengthen would – be –translators’
and translators’ awareness of usefulness
of applying theoretical knowledge to the
practice of translation. Aforementioned
problems can be solved.