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英语常用口语分类及用法(4)

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发表日期: 2005-07-14

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英语常用口语分类及用法


季红(石河子大学师范学院外语系,832000)

摘要


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 本文从目前大多数大学毕业生英语口语差的现象,阐述了口语在当前全球化环境中的重要性,并提醒每位英语教师及学生要重视这个问题。同时,本文把日常口语分成了十二类,对其中最常用句式的用法进行了重点解析。对学生了解在什么场合,运用什么样的英语口语表达法有一定的帮助作用。



关键词: 口语交际能力聽聽聽聽 分类聽聽聽聽聽 用法


Classification and Use of Useful Expressions in Oral English
Abstract: From the phenomenon that most of graduate students have poor oral English ability, the article states that speaking English is very important in the global environment and reminds every English teachers and students to attach importance to it. At the same time, it divides useful expressions in oral English into 12 and introduce some most usual expressions with their use. It has some help for students to understand how to use proper speaking English.


Key words: English speaking ability for communication聽聽聽 classification聽聽 use


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽我国2001年加入WTO,融入全球经济,跨文化交流势不可当,对外语人才的需求愈益迫切。较强的口语是体现语言能力,即用语言进行交际能力的重要内容。从目前情况看,大部分大学毕业生的英语口语交际能力不容乐观。根据上届大学外语指导委员会的一项调查,发现"用人单位对近几年来毕业的大学生的英语综合能力普遍感到不满意,对口语及写作能力则更为不满。他们认为口语能力强或非常强的仅为5%,差的或极差的为37%,能胜任或基本胜任参加国际会议讨论的仅为7%,能胜任或基本胜任参加对外业务谈判的仅为14%。"(邵永真1998:2) 从历年的大学英语口语考试来看,大学生英语口头交际能力很差。因此,教会学生在什么场合,运用什么样的英语口语表达法,是每个英语教师的责任和义务,也是适应世界大环境的需要。常用口语根据不同场合,不同对象大致可分为十二类。


一、聽见面及问候常用语(Meeting and Greetings)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 对初次被介绍见面的朋友,通常用How do you do?来打招呼。对方也以How do you do?作答。这只是一句客气话,并无真正问候之意。如果是已认识的朋友,偶然碰见时,就要用How are you?作问候语,而对方通常的回答是I'm fine. Thanks (you). And you? 较常见又很熟的朋友,见面时就可用Hi或?Hello打招呼,不一定要问候语。介绍两位初次见面的朋友可说:I'd like you to meet ….聽 Let me introduce you to ….聽 May I present …to you. 在比较随便的别的场合,特别是年轻人之间,可用: Have you met Ted? 或Do you know Ted.但这种直呼名字的方法,不宜用于正式场合。I haven't seen you for ages.是遇见许久不见的朋友时的招呼语。除此之外还可以说:I haven't seen you for a long time. I'm glad to see you again.


二、聽告辞及离开时用语(Goodbye and Leaving)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽Well, I'm afraid I must go now.是客人向主人告辞的用语。在书面语中通常是I'm afraid that…而在口语中则可省去that。告辞用语还有:I think I have to go now. I'm sorry I must go (now). See you相当于Goodbye的意思,是和朋友道别的用语,是比较随便的说法。如果是同学或同事,经常会见面,可用:See you later.如果和朋友已约定某个时间见面则可用:See you tomorrow/next Monday.等等。此外,对于比较熟的朋友可用:Bye! 或So long.等。Keep in touch!是在离别较长时间,希望经常保持联系时的告别语。还可以说:Remember to drop me a line.等。请对方代替问候别人时用:Give my best regards to …, please..或Give my love to ….回答常说:Thanks, I certainly will.


三、聽礼貌语(Polite Remarks)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽祝贺别人时多用:Congratulations! May happy returns.等等。听到别人不好的消息,对别人的不幸表示同情,可用:Oh! I'm sorry to hear that. What a pity! 等。另外,还可说些安慰,理解,鼓励语:Don't worry about that. Cheer up! 等。探视病人时说:I hope you'll get well soon. Take care of yourself.等。让来访的客人在家中不必拘束,可说:Make yourself at home. 等客人离开时可说:We enjoy your company. 比较随便的说法:Thanks for coming. It was nice of you to come to see me. 等。想主动帮助别人时,可用征询语气的句式:May I help you? 很熟的朋友或在比较随便的场合可用: Want a hand?等。


四、表示感谢用语(Giving Thanks)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽Thanks(you). Thanks you (very much/so much/a lot).比较客气的说法:That's very kind of you.等。一般多用You're welcome. Not at all.应答。对孰悉的朋友可用:That's OK. It's nothing. Any time. 感谢别人称赞时,可用:Thank you for the compliment.当请求别人帮助而对方不能做到,表示歉意时,多礼貌地使用:Thank you just the same. Thank you for asking me.是不能接受对方的邀请时用的礼貌语。当接受了人家的款待,最后告别时可用:Thank you very much for everything. 在吃饭时,客人表示已经吃饱了,可用:I've had enough, thank you.


五、聽表道歉的用语(Apologies)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 最常用的道歉语是:I'm sorry. Excuse me.等。I must apologize. I hope you will forgive me.等都是比较认真、正式地表示道歉的用语。对方可以回答:That's all right. Don't worry about that.等。没听清对方的话,多用:Pardon? Sorry? What? 较严肃的场合,可选用:I'm sorry/Excuse me, what did you say/what was that?等。


六、聽表请求的用语(Requests)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽在请求别人同意时,可用:Would you (mind if…)?这样的句式。请求别人帮助做某事时,可用:May I ask you a favor? Could you lend me a hand.等。征求别人允许时,可用May I…?来求得别人的同意。


七、聽表示邀请的用语(Invitations)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽想邀请别人吃点什么,可说:What about having something to eat? Let me treat you to dinner. 和Would you like to go out for dinner with me?等是正式邀请别人吃顿晚饭的用语。Would you care for / Would you like /How about a cup of coffee ?等是问别人是否需要喝点什么的用语。向对方提议某事可用:Why don't you / not…? 通常用于较熟的朋友。 答应别人邀请时,可说:Well, if you insist, I'd be glad to. Sure. By all means.在不能答应别人的邀请时,可用I'm afraid I won't…?I'm awfully sorry, but you see…等等。


八、聽表感叹或感觉时用语(Exclamations and Feeling)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 以What…! How…! Isn't it…? 可引出感叹语气。如:What a fine day! Isn't it useful? 表示自己很幸运的心情时,可用:Luck is coming my way.等。相反,觉得倒霉时可说:Today is not my lucky day.等。听到别人的不如意,表同情、可惜时说:What a shame? 赞赏别人工作或表现时用:Well done! Wonderful! 表示对某事物不满或未能得到合理答复时用:That's ridiculous! What a nuisance?等。听到一些意想不到,难以置信的事时,可说:You must be kidding.聽 Look out! 是警告或提醒对方小心时用语。催促别人迅速行动时,可用Hurry up. I'm disappointed表失望。表示十分失意和不知所措时,可用Oh, my God! 等。

聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 I couldn't care less.表示没有兴趣或漠不关心。发现对方不大对劲,表示关心时可用:What's wrong with you? I know how you feel. 等是当对方失意、沮丧的时候,可用此语表示对他的同情和关怀。表示自己精神或心情有点恍惚或不太舒服时,可用:I'm not myself today. I feel sick.等。


九、聽表肯定时用语(Degrees of Certainty)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽想询问以证实某件事情时可用:Is that right/correct? 完全认可对方所说的话时可说:That's right/correct 等。Are you sure/certain. 是要对方确定消息是否真实。强调自己消息正确时可说:I'm absolutely/quite certain/sure.聽 Sorry, I'm not sure. I can't say for sure.是对别人问的问题不能给予肯定答复时的用法。对被询问的问题完全不清楚时可用:I have no idea. I don't know anything about it. 当预料某事多半会发生时可用:I dare say…. It's bound to…. I bet it'll….等。


十、聽提出建议和给出意见时用语(Making Suggestions and Giving Opinions)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽征询别人意见时可用:What do you think of…?聽 What's your opinion of …? What about…?等。提出自己的建议给出自己的意见,这样的用语很多,如:I think…./ I think you should…. /If I were you, I'd…. /I suppose….表达自己不愿意的心情时用:I don't really want to…./I'd prefer not to…. 希望对方赞同自己的意见,可说:Don't you think so? 赞成对方的意见提议,可用:Yes, I agree. I think so, too. That's a good idea.等。不同意对方的看法时可说:No, I don't think so.聽 Yes, possibly, but….等。


十一、提供方向用语(Giving Directions)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 当别人向你问路,而自己又不熟悉那地方时可说:I'm sorry, but I'm a stranger here.要向对方说明方向的用语很多,根据场合,酌情选用。如: Go straight, and then turn left at the traffic lights.


十二、打电话用语(On the phone)


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 随看现代电信业的发展,双方交流除了面对面的交流外,还可通过电话、手机等通讯手段来交谈。在接通电话后,可用:May I speak to…这个句式作询问找你想找的人。对方打错电话时说:You have the wrong number.聽 接到电话,自己正是对方要找的人时说:Speaking. 如对方要找的不是自己,你可以根据情况选用:Hold the line, please. I'm afraid he isn't in. Shall I take a message.聽 He's tied up at the moment. 等。自己无暇在电话中与对方交谈时,可说:Let me call you back later.聽 I'm returning your call.是回复对方曾来的电话。需要打长途时可对接线员说:I'd like to make a ling distance call.等等。


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 面对着各种各样的挑战,英语口语能力的培养和提高已势在必行。以上提供的有限的口语表达知识,希望能够对外语教师及学生在英语口语表达能力方面有所帮助。只要我们从今天起重视口语,加强口语学习和练习,在社会实践中一定会有所成效。


聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 参考文献:

聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽1.常叙平译注.《英语九百句汉译注释》.商务印书馆.1980
聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 2.劳动部教材办公室组织编写.《交际英语》.中国劳动出版社.1997
聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 3.虞苏美. 李慧琴. (主编)《大学英语听力》.上海外语教育出版社.2000
聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 4.邵永真,1998,大学英语教学大纲修订说明[J],《大学外语教学通讯》第3期

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